The Effects of Public Opinion

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Campbell, Angus, Philip Converse, Warren Miller, and Donald Stokes. 1980. The American Voter: Unabridged Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2005. Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.

Lewis-Beck, Michael S., Helmut Norpoth, William Jacoby, and Herbert Weisberg. 2008. The American Voter Revisited. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Lippmann, Walter. 1922. Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.

Lupia, Arthur, and Mathew McCubbins. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pew Research Center (

Real Clear Politics’ Polling Center (

Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.