Human Pregnancy and Birth

Section Summary

Human pregnancy begins with fertilization of an egg and proceeds through the three trimesters of gestation. The labor process has three stages (contractions, delivery of the fetus, expulsion of the placenta), each propelled by hormones. The first trimester lays down the basic structures of the body, including the limb buds, heart, eyes, and the liver. The second trimester continues the development of all of the organs and systems. The third trimester exhibits the greatest growth of the fetus and culminates in labor and delivery. Prevention of a pregnancy can be accomplished through a variety of methods including barriers, hormones, or other means. Assisted reproductive technologies may help individuals who have infertility problems.